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This book presents an overview of the current applications of ultrasound in beverage industries. The most recent developments are discussed and future.
Table of contents
- Case Studies & Application Reports
- Services on Demand
- Beverage Industry
- Applications of Ultrasound in the Beverage Industry - Google книги
His method needs also an extra sensor. In our study an ultrasonic system was developed for the detection of FBs in beverage containers. Container bottom was scanned by an ultrasonic transducer mounted on the x-y table. Ultrasonic pulses were transmitted upward to the container bottom through the water jet functioning as a coupling liquid.
Case Studies & Application Reports
The ultrasonic pulse was redirected back by the outer surface front face of the container bottom as the first reflection and by the inner surface back face as the second reflection. By examining the pressure ratio of the two echoes, which is relatively stable, FBs can be detected and identified. By checking the spatial distribution of the ratio, FBs can be localized and their sizes can be estimated.
The theory and the algorithm to facilitate the recognition of two echoes in the joint-time frequency domain are described. Symbols z 1 , z 2 , z 3 and z 4 represent Fig. The z1 and z3 are equal since both signify water impedance. The acoustic impedance is the product of sound speed in the material and material density. The following discussion is limited to 1-D plane wave. Reflection and transmission coefficients are calculated as:.
Therefore, from a theoretical standpoint, the presence of FBs can be detected by measuring the pressure amplitude of the second reflection; given that the incident pressure P is known. However, the incident pressure in many cases is unknown as it represents the pressure just before impacting the container.
This pressure can be estimated based on the pressure propagation from the transducer through the delay line, to the nozzle, and finally to the outlet of the nozzle. This calculation is inaccurate due to signal attenuation, complexity of the nozzle geometry, instability of transducer driving voltage, and variations in the gap between the nozzle and the container bottom due to container surface irregularity.
All these factors may lead to false FB detection. In contrast, the pressure ratio between P 2 and P 1 is immune to such anomalies since the above variations vanish as a result of the division operation P 1 and P 2 are both proportional to the incident pressure and are subject to the same uncertainties. This is evident from Eq. The pressure ratio is a function of impedances only. Any variation in the reflection coefficient R3 will change the pressure ratio. Hence, the electric instability is cancelled. Also, Eqs.
This suggests that there is no object in the ultrasound path. In this case, the pressure ratio of the two echoes from the front face and the back face of the container is calculated by:. If the value increases during transducer scanning, the FB is considered detectable. In the experiments, the container was of polystyrene with an attenuation coefficient of 37 neper per meter at 4 MHz the peak frequency in the pulse spectrum generated by the transducer. Once an FB is detected, the following Eqs. In practice, the attenuation in water is 0.
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The equations in section 2 seem independent of frequency, as there is no explicit frequency term in these equations. However, this is not the case. The frequency dependence comes from pressure values which are derived from the frequency spectrum of the reflections. To enhance the signal to noise ratio in order to obtain accurate signal peak values from the spectrum, an algorithm for signal selection and separation is needed. In ultrasonic thru-transmission mode, signal selection and separation are not issues since there is only one pulse signal the receiver detects.
If the bottom is thick enough, the two signals will be well separated and spectrum calculation of each echo can be performed by augmenting rest of the signal by zeros He, If the bottom is not thick enough, which is our case, one has to determine where to separate the two overlapped signals. To overcome this problem, an algorithm of time-frequency analysis was developed. In this algorithm, a sliding window of width N was used to chop the sampled signal.
The window was then moved forward one point along the signal to perform the same operation. Repeating this process throughout the signal, the history of the pulse amplitude at peak frequency was obtained. The two echoes appear as two separated peaks in the time history. The window width N was important for this technique as the pulse amplitude will be lost if N is chosen to be less than the pulse duration period.
If N is chosen to be very large, the correct timing and amplitude information of the signals for two echoes from front face and back face may distort due to the energy merging between the two echoes. In our calculations, we found N equal to 25, which corresponds to pulse period of 4 MHz peak frequency at sampling frequency of MHz, to be effective.
To minimize the frequency leakage error on the spectrum amplitude Cartinhour, , a Hamming window was used prior to FFT operation. The experimental set-up of the prototype of the proposed system is shown in Fig. A polystyrene container with flat bottom of thickness 0. An ultrasonic transducer with delay line was mounted on the bottom of a plexiglass water jet nozzle that was supplied with water by a controllable pump.
The delay line was made of a plexiglass cylinder of 7. The nozzle has a 3 mm diameter at exit.
The ultrasound pulse was transmitted to the bottom of the polystyrene container through the water jet. The ultrasound signal traveling distance was A 2 mm gap was kept between the container bottom and the nozzle tip so that the transducer mounted to the x-y table could scan the container bottom smoothly. The ultrasonic pulse was coupled to the water by a delay line. The signal sampling frequency was MHz.
Five specimens: plexiglass, glass, aluminum, stainless steel and copper were tested. All these specimens were cut into pieces of 10 mm in square whose thickness and acoustic parameters are listed in Table 1. The specimens were placed in the container filled with water one hour before the experiment.
The water depth in the contained was about 10 mm. A Labview 5. The panel includes switches, knobs, and graphical outputs that provide the appearance of an instrument.
It is composed of three sections: The first section appearing in the upper left corner of the control panel is to control the movement of the x-y table. The detection procedure is designed to scan the bottom of a beverage container line by line. By inputting the starting position X 0 , Y 0 , ending position X n , Y n and step length X step ,Y step , the transducer scans the container bottom using the x-y table. The real-time position of the transducer is monitored and displayed on the monitor.
The third section is to process and display the sampled signal left lower part window control and right lower part. This includes the signal slicing, offset level removing, windowing, FFT algorithm, and pressure ratio calculation for peak frequency. The main program runs in the following order i positioning the transducer using the x-y table, ii sending and receiving ultrasound signal, and iii signal processing. The second sequence provides a waiting time.
This waiting time ensures that ultrasound signal is emitted and received after the x-y table is mechanically stopped to avoid any measurement when the x-y table is moving. This avoids errors for FB localization and reduces signal to noise ratio. The third sequence of the main program, which performs the signal sampling and displaying. The loop will stop if the output is logic 1, otherwise the loop will continue.
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Some noise before the container outer surface reflection time could be attributed to shear wave of the delay line. The two echoes are in opposite phase because of the impedance discontinuity, and agree very well with the analysis in the preceding sections. In fact, the phase information could also be used as criterion for FB detection. In Figs. The time difference between the two reflections remains unchanged similar to that for the real time signal Fig. Knoerze, P.
Applications of Ultrasound in the Beverage Industry - Google книги
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He absolutely loved the BSP and bought it off from us that same day to take to his facility in CA! See More Customer Testimonials.