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Production of high quality fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum). VDM Verlag, Saarbrücken, German. Fenugreek: a medical dictionary, bibliography, and annotated research guide to Internet references. ICON Health Publications, San.
Table of contents

Vacuum oven process caused a higher level of Maillard reaction followed by the spray drying process, which was confirmed by the lower amount of lysine content and less lightness, also more browning intensity. This research suggests that any drying method must be conducted in its gentle state in order to sustain native structure of proteins and promote their functionalities.

Performance of fenugreek bioinoculated with Rhizobium meliloti strains under semi-arid condition. Rhizobium meliloti strains were isolated from the fields of S. These strains were tested for their effectiveness for fenugreek crop grown under semi-arid condition. Among the six Rhizobium strains, FRS-7 strain showed best plant growth parameters like shoot length, shoot dry weight, shoot total nitrogen, root length, root dry weight, root total nitrogen, seed yield, grain weight, number of root nodules, and nodules fresh and dry weight.

The performance of this strain was better as compared to 20 kgN ha -1 treatment through urea and was even far better over control plot. Seed yields obtained with FRS-7 during two years were This strain resulted in saving of about 20 kgN ha -1 accompanied with better crop yield and soil health. Results of the present experiments can be utilized in integrated nutrient management for cultivation of fenugreek in semi-arid areas to provide sustainability to agricultural productivity in such regions. Chaudhary, Spandan; Chikara, Surendra K.

The effects of methyl jasmonate MeJA , an elicitor of plant defense mechanisms, on the biosynthesis of diosgenin, a steroidal saponin, were investigated in six fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum varieties Gujarat Methi-2, Kasuri-1, Kasuri-2, Pusa Early Branching, Rajasthan Methi and Maharashtra Methi Treatment with 0. Therefore, MeJA may be considered a promising elicitor for diosgenin production by fenugreek plants. The comparative evaluation of qualitative and quantitative composition of glycoproteins of gastric and duodenal wall surface layer of protective mucus in the normal, at the modeling of ulcers in rats and at the introduction to animals with ulcerative lesions of fenugreek extract carried out.

It was shown in control normally the general level of glycosylation of glycoproteins gastric mucus is 1. Under acute stress model ulceration in the stomach mucus decrease in hexosamine 1. Under cysteamine model ulceration in duodenal mucus increase galactose 2. It was proved the protective effect of fenugreek extract to the wall surface mucus of the stomach and duodenum mucosa under conditions modeling ulceration in rats.

Malnutrition continues to be a key health problem in developing regions. Cumin Cuminum cyminum L. However, remaining cakes after oil extraction are usually underutilized. In order to assess the usefulness of these by-products in food applications, this study investigated the effect of their addition to protein bread formulations. Fortified protein bread samples were compared to control protein bread and evaluated for their sensory, color, moisture, hardness properties, nutritional values as well as their biological activity. Results indicated that bread fortification shows a significant effect on bread properties depending on fortification level.

A higher acceptability was observed specially for bread fortified with by-products flour. Increased tendencies of color darkness, moisture content, bread hardness, nutritional values as well as total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity compared to control bread were observed as the percentage of fortification increased in both cases. The overall results showed that the addition of cumin and caraway seeds and by-product flour can improve the antioxidant potential and overall quality of protein bread.

Modification of deoiled cumin dietary fiber with laccase and cellulase under high hydrostatic pressure. In this study, we evaluated the effects of high hydrostatic pressure HHP and enzyme laccase and cellulase treatment on the structural, physicochemical, and functional properties and antioxidant activity of deoiled cumin dietary fiber DF. HHP-enzyme treatment altered the honey-comb structure of DF and generated new polysaccharides.

DF modified by HHP-enzyme treatment exhibited improved water retention capacity Therefore, DF modified by HHP-enzyme treatment from deoiled cumin could be used as a fiber-rich ingredient in functional foods. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Nutraceutical properties of cumin residue generated from Ayurvedic industries using cell line models.

Spent cumin SC , generated from Ayurvedic industry, was evaluated for its nutraceutical potential in terms of antioxidant, antidiabetic and anticancer properties, and compared with that of the raw cumin RC. SCM methanol extract were rich in p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid and cinnamic acid 6. SCM inhibited viability, retarded migration area up to The results indicated that dietary interventions using nutraceutical food formulation made out of SC can play a significant role in the prevention and management of degenerative diseases.

The valorization of food waste appears as an ideal way to prevent malnutrition and improve people's access to food. Protective effect of dietary fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds and garlic Allium sativum on induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in rats. Dietary fenugreek seeds Trigonella foenum-graecum and garlic Allium sativum have been previously observed to have cardioprotective influence in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats. Since low-density lipoprotein LDL oxidation is a key factor in the arteriosclerotic process, we evaluated their potential in minimizing the LDL oxidation in rats.

Fenugreek seeds, garlic, and their combination were included along with a high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Iron-induced oxidation of LDL in vivo was considerably lowered by dietary fenugreek and garlic. Dietary fenugreek , garlic, and their combination significantly lowered lipid peroxide levels in plasma, liver, and heart in iron II -administered rats. The results suggest that these two dietary spices have protective effect on LDL oxidation under normal situation as well as in hypercholesterolemic situation.

The protective effect of the combination of dietary fenugreek and garlic on LDL oxidation both in vivo and in vitro was greater than that of the individual spices. The protective effect of dietary fenugreek and garlic on LDL oxidation both in vivo and in vitro as evidenced in the present study is suggestive of their cardioprotective potential since LDL oxidation is a key factor in the arteriosclerotic process. The enzyme kinetic studies were carried out for obtaining best catalytic performance and enhanced reusability.

Optimum temperature remained unchanged, whereas optimum pH showed shift towards acidic range for immobilized enzyme. Increase in thermal stability of immobilized enzyme and non-toxic nature of functionalized graphene can be exploited for production of maltose in food and pharmaceutical industries.

Effect of cryogenic grinding on volatile and fatty oil constituents of cumin Cuminum cyminum L. Effect of cryogenic grinding on recovery of volatile oil, fatty oil percentage and their constituents in two cumin Cuminum cyminum L. Cryogenic grinding not only retains the volatiles but enhanced the recovery by A significant increase This increase was, however, less Nineteen major compounds were identified in the essential oil of both genotypes.

The two grinding techniques had significant effects on dependent variables, viz. Cuminaldehyde was the main constituent in both genotypes, content of which increased from Content of terpines were found to decrease in cryo ground samples of GC 4 and either decrease or no change was found in RZ Organoleptic test showed more pleasant aroma in cryo ground seeds of both the genotypes. Significant increase was also reported in fatty oil yield due to cryogenic grinding.

Other prominent FAME were palmitic, palmitoleic and stearic acid. Results indicated commercial potential of cryogenic grinding technology for cumin in general and spices in particular for better retention of flavour and quality in spices. In this study, the effects of salinity on growth, fatty acid, essential oil, and phenolic composition of cumin Cuminum cyminum L. Plants were treated with different concentrations of NaCl treatment: 0, 50, 75, and mmoL. Plant growth was significantly reduced with the severity of saline treatment. This also caused important reductions in the seed yield and yield components.

Besides, NaCl treatments affected fatty acid composition. Petroselinic and linoleic acids proportions diminished consistently with the increase in NaCl concentration, whereas palmitic acid proportion increased. Furthermore, NaCl enhanced essential oil production in C. Total polyphenol content was higher in treated seeds, and salinity improved the amount of individual phenolic compounds. The highest antioxidant activities were reveled in severe stressed plants. In this case, cumin seeds produced under saline conditions may function as a potential source of essential oil and antioxidant compounds, which could support the utilization of this plant in a large field of applications such as food industry.

Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum is a medicinal plant which is widely used for its pharmacological properties. In this study the phenolic composition of fenugreek crude seeds originating from Morocco has been investigated. Extraction was performed from defatted seeds by a hydromethanolic solution using an Accelerated Solvent Extractor. HPLC technique coupled to negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and diode array detection was employed to identify the polyphenol in the obtained extract.

The obtained results allowed the detection of 32 phenolic compounds among which various flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids have been tentatively identified on the basis of their UV and MS spectra, and comparisons with standards when available, as well as with literature data. A systematic study of the obtained MS spectra and the observed fragmentation showed that most of the identified compounds were acylated and non-acylated flavonoids with apigenin, luteolin and kaempferol as aglycons.

Hydroxycinnamic acids mostly dominated by caffeic acid derivatives were also detected. The quantitative analysis of the identified compounds showed that the phenolic composition of the studied crude fenugreek seeds was predominantly acylated and non-acylated flavone derivatives with apigenin as the main aglycon. The effects of bulk and Nanosized SiO 2 on seed germination and seedling growth indices of fenugreek under salinity stress were studied in the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in Seedling growth attributes significantly improved when bulk and nanosized SiO 2 concentrations applied singly or with different levels of salt stress.

However, they significantly declined with salt application. It was concluded that nanosized SiO 2 improves growth attributes of fenugreek and mitigate adverse effects of salt stress. Amelioration of hyperglycemia and associated metabolic abnormalities by a combination of fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds and onion Allium cepa in experimental diabetes. Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds and onion Allium cepa are independently known to have antidiabetic effects through different mechanisms. The beeneficial influence of a combination of dietary fenugreek seeds and onion on hyperglycemia and its associated metabolic abnormalities were evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Diabetic rats with these dietary interventions excreted lesser glucose, albumin, urea and creatinine, which were accompanied by improved body weights compared with the diabetic controls. These dietary interventions produced ameliorative effects on pancreatic pathology as reflected by near-normal islet cells, restored glycogen and collagen fiber deposition in diabetic rats. This study documented the hypoglycemic and insulinotropic effects of dietary fenugreek and onion, which were associated with countering of metabolic abnormalities and pancreatic pathology. It may be strategic to derive maximum nutraceutical antidiabetic benefits from these functional food ingredients by consuming them together.

Amelioration of oxidative stress by dietary fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Oxidative stress has a crucial role in the progression of diabetes and its complications. Soluble fibre-rich fenugreek seeds Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Previously, we have shown that the amelioration of diabetic hyperglycemia and related metabolic abnormalities was potentiated by onion Allium cepa L. Medicinal plants have proved at all times to be a powerful remedy for health care. Accordingly, grape seed, sesame, and fenugreek extracted oils with pharmacological properties are investigated as wound treatments.

This study assesses the potential of our oils for healing wounds induced on rats. Phytochemical analyses of oils have involved: quality value, polyphenol, chlorophylls, carotene, and fatty acids. Antibacterial activity was carried out. The posthealing biopsies were histologically assessed. Wound biopsies treated with oils showed the best tissue regeneration compared to control groups.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids in oils act as inflammatory mediators increasing neovascularization, extracellular remodeling, migration, and cell differentiation. Wound healing effect was attributed to antibacterial and antioxidant synergy. However, clinical trials on humans are necessary to confirm efficacy on human pathology. Are ovine fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum staggers and kangaroo gait of lactating ewes two clinically and pathologically similar nervous disorders? Fenugreek staggers has occurred in sheep in Victoria, as both an acute and a chronic syndrome. Signs included quadraparesis, a high stepping fore limb gait and a 'bunny-hopping' hind limb gait.

Changes consistent with acute oedema were found in the brain and spinal cord of acute cases, and Wallerian degeneration in the peripheral nerves of chronic cases. Kangaroo gait occurred in ewes in New South Wales, and the clinical signs and microscopic changes were remarkably similar to those of fenugreek staggers. Although the diet associated with each is different the causal agent may be the same. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and bioaccessibility of saponins from edible seeds: quinoa, lentil, fenugreek , soybean and lupin. The efficient production of saponin-rich extracts is of increasing interest due to the bioactive properties that have being demonstrated for these compounds.

However, saponins have a poor bioavailability. In this respect, the knowledge about the bioaccessibility of saponins as a first step before bioavailability has been scarcely explored. In this study, the production of ultrasound-assisted extracts of saponins from edible seeds quinoa, soybean, red lentil, fenugreek and lupin was carried out with ethanol, ethanol:water or water. Then, the bioaccessibility of saponins after the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the extracts was determined and the effect of TPC and fat in the extracts on bioaccessibility was evaluated.

Correlation studies showed that TPC of the extracts negatively affected the bioaccessibility of saponins, whereas fat of the extracts enhanced this parameter. As summary, ultrasound-assisted extraction is shown as an efficient method for obtaining saponin-rich extracts from edible seeds, being ethanol the most advantageous solvent due to the richness of saponins and the successful bioaccessibility from these extracts, likely caused by the co-extracted fat with ethanol.

Regardless of the extracts, phenolic compounds or fat may hinder or enhance the bioaccessibility of saponins, respectively. Additionally, an adequate balance between saponins to lipids has shown to be relevant on such an effect. Then, lipid droplets in NIT-1 cells were observed by oil red O staining, and the intracellular triglyceride content was measured by colorimetric assay.

The insulin content in the supernatant was determined using an insulin radio-immunoassay. Oxidative stress-associated parameters, including total superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity and malondialdehyde levels in the suspensions were also examined. In addition, apoptosis was evaluated in NIT-1 cells by flow cytometry assays and caspase-3 viability assays. However, FL reversed the above changes. The mechanism for this action may be associated with improvements in levels of oxidative stress.

Buccal patches of atenolol formulated using fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum L. The use of mucoadhesive natural polymers in designing mucoadhesive patch systems has received much attention. The study involved the development and evaluation of buccal patches of atenolol using fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum L. These atenolol-releasing buccal patches were prepared using a solvent casting technique. The buccal patches prepared were evaluated for average weight, thickness, drug content, folding endurance and moisture content. Ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, force of adhesion and bonding strength were determined using porcine buccal mucosa.

The mucosal permeation of atenolol through the porcine buccal mucosa was carried out using a Franz diffusion cell in phosphate buffer saline, pH 6. The average weight, thickness, drug content, folding endurance and moisture content of these atenolol-releasing buccal patches were found satisfactory for all the patches. Amongst all, the F-4 buccal patch showed maximum mucoadhesive strength Ex vivo atenolol permeation from the buccal patches showed drug permeation across the excised porcine buccal mucosa over 12 h.

The F-4 buccal patch showed maximum permeation flux The developed atenolol-releasing buccal patches can be beneficial over the conventional drug delivery systems to decrease the dosing frequency and enhance patient compliance. In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity of fenugreek seed Trigonella foenum-graecum crude extracts against a rabbit Escherichia coli isolate.

Post-weaned rabbits are sensitive to digestive disorders some of which may be due or aggravated by enteric bacteria, such as Escherichia coli E. Fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum is a medicinal plant known for its various pharmacological properties, including its antibacterial activity. Haemato-protective influence of dietary fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum L. We have recently reported the beneficial modulation of metabolic abnormalities and oxidative stress in diabetic rats by dietary fenugreek seeds and onion.

This study also evaluated the altered erythrocyte membrane lipid profile and beneficial countering of increased lipid peroxidation, osmotic fragility, along with reduced membrane fluidity and deformability, nitric oxide production and echinocyte formation. Dietary fenugreek seeds and onion appeared to counter the deformity and fragility of erythrocytes partially in diabetic rats by their antioxidant potential and hypocholesterolemic property.

The antisickling potency of these spices was accomplished by a substantial decrease in echinocyte population and AGEs in diabetic rats. Further insight into the factors that might have reduced the fluidity of erythrocytes in diabetic rats revealed changes in the cholesterol: phospholipid ratio, fatty acid profile, and activities of membrane-bound enzymes. This is the first report on the hemato-protective influence of a nutraceutical food component in diabetic situation.

Performance of some Ethiopian fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Systematic breeding efforts on fenugreek have so far been neglected in Ethiopia. For this, random samples of fenugreek accessions along with a commercial variety were used in this study to evaluate the potential of the land races. The field experiment was conducted at Haramaya University research station during main cropping season. Treatments were arranged in a 12x12 simple lattice design.

The highest biomass and seed yielding accessions were generally concentrated more in the categories of yellow and green seed colors. However, further evaluation over wider environments is necessary to arrive at conclusive points for such quantitative traits. High seed yield bearing accessions were those collected from northwest and central part of Ethiopia, while accessions collected from eastern and northwestern Ethiopia were strikingly bold seed size.

This variability would provide a basis for improving the crop in breeding program. Objectives Paraoxanase 1 PON1 plays a protective role against the oxidative modification of plasma lipoproteins and hydrolyzes lipid peroxides in human atherosclerotic lesions.

Cumin is the dried seed of the herb Cuminumcyminum that is known as Zeera in Iran. Cumin seeds contain flavonoids which are now generally recognized to have antioxidant activity and improve the antioxidant system. Glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were assayed using standard enzymatic procedures. The levels of arylesterase and paraoxanase activities in the samples were measured by photometry methods and oxLDL by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA method. The biochemical parameters were compared before and after taking cumin.

Results The results demonstrated that there was a significant decrease in the level of oxLDL after receiving cumin. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities increased in serum after taking cumin extract. Conclusion Based on the results, cumin reduces oxLDL level and increases both paraoxonase and arylesterase activity. To evaluate acute oral toxicity AOT , subchronic day repeated dose toxicity, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity potential of IDM01, the botanical composition of 4-hydroxyisoleucine- and trigonelline-based standardized fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum L seed extract in laboratory rats.

During the subchronic study, the effects on body weight, food and water consumption, organ weights with hematology, clinical biochemistry, and histology were studied. IDM01 was found safe during preclinical acute and subchronic day repeated dose toxicity in rats without mutagenicity or genotoxicity. Acute oral toxicity, subchronic day oral toxicity, mutagenicity and genotoxicity of IDM01 4-hydroxyisoleucine- and trigonelline-based standardized fenugreek seed extract was evaluated.

IDM01 was found safe during acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats without. Objective: To evaluate acute oral toxicity AOT , subchronic day repeated dose toxicity, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity potential of IDM01, the botanical composition of 4-hydroxyisoleucine- and trigonelline-based standardized fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum L seed extract in laboratory rats.

Conclusions: IDM01 was found safe during preclinical acute and subchronic day repeated dose toxicity in rats without mutagenicity or genotoxicity. SUMMARY Acute oral toxicity, subchronic day oral toxicity, mutagenicity and genotoxicity of IDM01 4-hydroxyisoleucine- and trigonelline-based standardized fenugreek seed extract was evaluated. IDM01 was found safe during. Influence of debittered, defatted fenugreek seed powder and flaxseed powder on the rheological characteristics of dough and quality of cookies.

Background Breastfeeding women with hypogalactia are commonly recommended to use fenugreek as a galactogogue. This study aimed to achieve formal consensus among breastfeeding women and healthcare providers on which potential harms and benefits of using fenugreek need to be communicated and discussed during clinical consultations.

Consensus was achieved on 21 potential harms and 14 potential benefits of using fenugreek to enhance human milk supply that need to be discussed with breastfeeding women during consultations.

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Conclusion Probably, potential harms and benefits of recommending fenugreek as herbal galactogogue for breastfeeding women seeking recommendations to increase their human milk supply need to be discussed during clinical consultations. Further observational studies are needed to assess what is being discussed in daily consultations when herbal remedies are recommended. In vitro antibacterial activity of seven Indian spices against high level gentamicin resistant strains of enterococci.

Introduction The aim of the study was to explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts of spices against high level gentamicin resistant HLGR enterococci isolated from human clinical samples. Material and methods Two hundred and fifteen enterococcal strains were isolated from clinical samples. High level gentamicin resistance in ethanolic extracts of cumin Cuminum cyminum , cinnamon Cinnamomum zeylanicum , ginger Zingiber officinale , fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum , cloves Syzygium aromaticum , cardamom Elettaria cardamomum Maton and black pepper Piper nigrum were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus.

The antibacterial effect of the extracts was studied using the well diffusion method. Results Only cinnamon and ginger were found to have activity against all the isolates, whereas cumin and cloves had a variable effect on the strains. Fenugreek , black pepper and cardamom did not show any effect on the isolates. The zone diameter of inhibition obtained for cinnamon, ginger, cloves and cumin was in the range 31—34 mm, 27—30 mm, 25—26 mm and 19—20 mm respectively.

Conclusions Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Z. The findings of the study show that spices used in the study can contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents for inclusion in the anti-enterococcal treatment regimen. Production and characterization of a new biodegradable fenugreek seed gum based active nanocomposite film reinforced with nanoclays. Nine different Indian spices red chilli, black pepper, turmeric, coriander, cumin , fennel, caraway, fenugreek , and dry ginger commonly cultivated and highly used in India were analysed for natural occurrence of toxigenic mycoflora and aflatoxins AFs , ochratoxin A OTA , and citrinin CTN contamination.

Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were the most dominant species isolated from all types of spices. Red chilli samples were highly contaminated with aflatoxins Penicillium citrinum produced citrinin in red chilli, black pepper, coriander, cumin , fenugreek , and dry ginger samples. The highest amount of AFs was found in red chilli The results of this study suggest that the spices are susceptible substrate for growth of mycotoxigenic fungi and further mycotoxin production.

This is the first report of natural occurrence of citrinin in black pepper and dry ginger from India. Black English and Black Attitudes. Examines attitudes in the Black community towards the topic of Black English and specifically the controversy about the relationship of the speech of Blacks to that of Whites, the distinctive features in the speaking and writing of Black college students, and the attitudes of Black educators.

Available from South Atlantic Modern Language…. Polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS is one of the most prevalent hormonal disorders among women of reproductive age causing irregular menstrual cycles, excessive body or facial hair, miscarriage and infertility. The latter being a most common PCOS symptoms. Because the symptoms are seemingly unrelated to one another, PCOS is often overlooked and undiagnosed.

The study was conducted to determine its efficacy on the reduction of ovarian volume and the number of ovarian cysts. Ethical committee approval was obtained for this study. Furocyst treatment caused significant reduction in ovary volume. Significant increases in luteinizing hormone LH and follicular stimulating hormone FSH levels were observed compared to the baseline values. Extensive blood chemistry, hematological and biochemical assays demonstrated the broad-spectrum safety.

Furocyst caused significant decrease in both ovarian volume and the number of ovarian cysts. No significant adverse effects were observed. Black Culture. The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families.

The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…. Black holes. Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. Black Alcoholism. Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks , asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context.

Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. Long-term survival of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli OH4 outbreak strain on fenugreek seeds. The epidemiological investigation revealed that a contaminated batch of fenugreek seeds Trigonella foenum-graecum was the most probable source of the pathogen.

It was suggested that the most probable point of contamination was prior to leaving the importer, meaning that the seed contamination with STEC OH4 should have happened more than one year before the seeds were used for sprout production. Here, we investigated the capacity of STEC OH4 and closely related pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strains for long-term survival on dry fenugreek seeds.

For none of the strains tested cultivatable cells were found without enrichment on contaminated seeds after more than 24 weeks of storage. Our findings suggest that contamination previous to the distribution from the importer may be less likely than previously assumed. We show that seeds contaminated with E. This simple and cheap procedure does not affect the germination capacity of the seeds and could significantly improve safety in sprout production.

Published by Elsevier Ltd.. Optimization of extraction efficiency by shear emulsifying assisted enzymatic hydrolysis and functional properties of dietary fiber from deoiled cumin Cuminum cyminum L. This study evaluated the optimal conditions for extracting dietary fiber DF from deoiled cumin by shear emulsifying assisted enzymatic hydrolysis SEAEH using the response surface methodology. The results revealed that the optimal extraction conditions included an enzyme to substrate ratio of 4.


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Under these conditions, DF extraction efficiency and total dietary fiber content were The major components of deoiled cumin DF were hemicellulose This book contains essays which focus on the systems of communication that operate within and between various social segments of Afro-American communities in the United States. Antioxidant and hemolytic activities, and effects in rat cutaneous wound healing of a novel polysaccharide from fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and hemolytic activities as well as the in vivo wound healing performance of a novel polysaccharide FWEP extracted from fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds.

The antioxidant activity was evaluated in vivo and in vitro using various assays. Results showed that FWEP exhibited strong antioxidant activities but no hemolytic activity was observed towards bovine erythrocytes. The application of FWEP hydrogel on the wound site in a rat model enhanced significantly wound healing activity and accelerated the wound closure after 14days of wound induction.

Histological examination also demonstrated fully re-epithelialized wound with a complete epidermal regeneration. Altogether, these evidences demonstrated that FWEP had strong wound healing potential presumably achieved through its antioxidant activities. Effects of pre-germinated fenugreek seeds inclusion in low-fiber diets on post-weaned rabbits' health status, growth performances, carcass characteristics, and meat chemical composition.

Newly weaned rabbits frequently suffer from digestive disorders particularly when fed low-fiber diets. Fenugreek seeds are rich in dietary fiber and would be suited to moderate such disorders. This study investigated the effect of pre-germinated fenugreek seeds PGFS on rabbits' health, digestibility, growth performance, and carcass parameters. Context: Antidepressant-like effects of 2S, 3R, 4S hydroxyisoleucine 4-HI , a major amino acid from fenugreek seeds, has been reported in the animal model of acute depression.

Aims: To evaluate effects of subacute administration of 4-HI in animal model of stress-induced depression namely socially isolated olfactory bulbectomized rats. After recovery period of 14 days, rats were randomized into five groups of 6 rats each and stressed with social isolation individual housing.

The behavioral depression and anxiety related parameters using open field test OFT , sucrose intake test, novelty suppressed feeding NSF and forced swim test FST , and neurochemical estimation brain monoamines viz. Antidepressant-like effects of 2S, 3R, 4S hydroxyisoleucine 4-HI , a major amino acid from fenugreek seeds, has been reported in the animal model of acute depression.

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The pandan leaves can be woven into baskets and mats while the juice extracted from the leaves is used to flavour savoury as well as sweet dishes. Bajau women in Sabah, for instance, weave exquisite pandan mats, incorporating intricate designs which reflected their historical and cultural bonds with the Philippines.

Despite a cold morning drizzle, the children eagerly assembled in the assembly ground, where they sang They also presented a pantun and dance Penang n. Also Pulau Pinang. Penangite n. A native or inhabitant of the state of Penang. The decision by Malaysia Airlines to discontinue its Penang-Phuket-Penang service effective end of this month came as a shock to many as it is a popular destination among Penangites and other northerners.

Perak n. The charge, under Section of the Penal Code, carries the death sentence or life imprisonment if convicted. Peranakan a. Also Baba , Nyonya. Perlis n. MCA leaders yesterday pledged to set aside their differences to work together and ensure victory for the Barisan Nasional in the Indera Kayangan by-election in Perlis. The seeds can be cooked or eaten raw dipped in a spicy sambal. Another thing about Gerald is that he consumes sambal petai like ice-cream. Another item to look out for is the sambal udang petai. Also sekolah pondok , pondok school [Malay sekolah pondok ].

If you want your children to have an Islamic education, the pondok still offers the best option There used to be a pondok polis nearby. When it was here, the crime rate was low. Also chicken pongteh , ayam pongteh. I had never really thought much of pongteh chicken but I must admit Queenie has given it a new perspective.

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Many would be able to remember how their grandmothers would scare them with ghost stories about the beautiful pontianak female vampire who lived in the heart of banana trees and led young men astray, with often fatal consequences. Puan Sri n. Raja n. Indian] The sovereign of the state of Perlis. Raja Permaisuri Agong n. On behalf of the House, we offer our condolences to the Raja Permaisuri Agong and the royal family.

For Ayub, this statement reflects the capricious ideologies spread by certain quarters who take advantage of the leeway afforded them by turning the rakyat against the Government. Ramadan n. Also Ramadhan. Arabic] The ninth month of the Islamic calendar, when Muslims fast during the day and break the fast in the evening. Ramadan is not just about fasting during the daytime. It goes beyond that. The holy month of Ramadan is also a training ground for Muslims to cultivate good character. Arabic] A two-stringed fiddle believed to have originated in Arabia or Persia, and closely associated with Islamic culture.

At the same time, traditional performers inserted another dimension into Antara Semangat by using ethnic instruments like the rebab, serunai and gendang. Thirty years ago men used their hands to beat the rebana ubi but players in their impetuous enthusiasm are oblivious to the fact that the palms of their hands were cut or bruised.

This interfered with their work, thus padded drumsticks are now used interchangeably. So we marinate the deer the day before, using local herbs like daun ketumbar, kurma powder, ginger, serai and wet rempah More than food stalls offering local favourites such as laksa Johor, ketupat, rendang, soto, rojak, lontong and traditional cakes ensured a free flow of food for guests.

We naturally like to learn new things, and turning out a fragrant apple pie or dishing out a plate of mouth-watering beef rendang from your own kitchen can be very satisfying. Means of livelihood. Spokesman for the buyers, Satiayawani Arumugan, said most of them were from the lower-income group and performed odd jobs like selling cendol and rojak. Believed to have developed during the post-Portuguese period in Malacca, ronggeng became a popular form of entertainment at Baba and Malay weddings and other festivities in Penang in pre-war days.

He also said he understood that he could be sentenced to a maximum 20 years jail and rotan for the offence. Hindustani] Bread, usually the local version of a white loaf, which is slightly sweet and has a very soft texture. Sabah n. Sabahan n. A native or inhabitant of the state of Sabah. Of or relating to or characteristic of the state of Sabah or its people or language or culture.

A The Star 21 Nov. If he seals the deal, he will be the second Sabahan in the Sarawak team. B The Star 21 Nov. The required fabrics ranged from songket, kain tenun, tjanting batik, pua kumbu to dastar an ethnic Sabahan fabric traditionally used for headgear for the first two categories and cotton batik, pua and dastar for the casual wear. Tamil sambaar ] Spicy condiment made variously from chillies, tamarind, shrimp paste, etc. Sarawak n. Sarawakian n. A native or inhabitant of the state of Sarawak. Of or relating to or characteristic of the state of Sarawak or its people or language or culture.

A The Star 6 Sept. B New Straits Times 8 Aug. Sharifah Kirana showcased a fusion of East and West eveningwear. Sarawakian designer Tom Abang Saufi put on a collection with Sarawakian motifs. Sanskrit, Hindi, Urdu sari ] A long piece of fabric that is worn over a petticoat by Indian women. Also sarung. This type of batik dates back to and was commonly worn as a sarong or as a shawl by women in the palace in Terengganu.

Selangor n. Selangorian n. A native or inhabitant of the state of Selangor. The dancers from Perak were all clad in purple Putri costumes and selendang. The games that were contested during the first phase of the sports carnival in Penang were soccer, netball, sepak takraw, swimming, hockey, tenpin bowling, tennis, badminton and table tennis. So we marinate the deer the day before, using local herbs like daun ketumbar, kurma powder, ginger, serai Silat has its roots as far back as 6 AD when it was formalised as a combative system.

However, there are those who feel that silat olahraga will compromise its combative value. Also kain songket. Some of the great crafts produced were the award-winning kain songket which has broken away from the usual repetitive motif and instead has a flowing floral motif that runs boldly across the material by Habibah Zikri from Kuala Terengganu. Javanese Malay] A spicy chicken soup with noodles or rice cakes.

Subuh prayer n. I leave my house just after Subuh prayers. Sultan n. Arabic] 1 The sovereign of a Muslim country. The winners received their prizes from the Sultan of Pahang at the closing ceremony Sultan Azlan Shah said although a conducive working environment and an effective administrative system were already in place a long time ago in the state, he hoped it could be enhanced from time to time.

Arabic] A poem comprising successive verses of four rhyming lines. Arabic] A n.

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Islamic principles. That which is based on Islamic principles. A New Straits Times 18 Aug. B The Star 17 Nov. Syawal n. Arabic] The tenth month of the Islamic calendar. The first day of Syawal signifies the end of the fasting month of Ramadan and is celebrated by Muslims all over the world. Tan Sri n. Mentri Besar Tan Sri Isa Abdul Samad said he had advised developers to drop prices to enable them to sell their properties. Appetisers include dates, pisang emas, tapai, pickles, cencaluk and tempoyak. The informal chats, over a glass of teh tarik and mee goreng, have proven to be an invaluable source of information.

The spread includes nasi minyak jawa timur, daging dendeng berlado, sotong Kalimantan, salad ayam jawa, rojak bandung, begedil tempe, mee goreng jawa, traditional desserts and complimentary teh or kopi tarik. Arabic] Evening prayer performed by the Muslims during the fasting month. Terengganu n.

Two years ago, a Singaporean female diver also lost her life under unclear circumstances in Terengganu. Often used in a disparaging sense. The vain ones and the tidak apa types. All I can assume is that, as Telekom Malaysia is monopolising fixed line services, it is too rich to bother about another subscriber, hence its tidak apa attitude. Break fast with dates and whet your appetite with kerabu, ulam and sambal such as gado-gado, ulam raja, pegaga, kacang botol, sambal mangga and sambal belacan.

Also ulamak. Arabic] A man or a group of men with Islamic education and Islam-related professions. He said the main cause of weaknesses among the Muslims was the misunderstanding perpetrated by the ulama, who misinterpret the Quran according to their own personal and political agenda, causing many to reject knowledge and education except for those pertaining to the religion.

Here am I, a two-bit hack and lawyer from the ulu addressing a guy presidential hopeful Al Gore enlisted in his desperate battle to seize the Oval office. Arabic] A secondary Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca.

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Abdullah said the special passport would enable the Saudi Government to differentiate between Malaysians in the kingdom to perform umrah and others who came for other reasons. Arabic] 1 A male Islamic teacher. Even mosque officials and ustaz are seen on the golf course now. Arabic] 1 A female Islamic teacher. Training Division assistant director Ustazah Norliah Sajuri, As the designation of the job implies, the wakil rakyat represents all the people in his constituency whether they voted for him or not.

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Arabic] In Islam, the mediator for women seeking marriage. Although Semelai people are not Muslims, they still practise the nikah ceremony where a kadi marries the couple and the wali functions as a witness. Dutch wouw ]. A large local kite, usually flown by adults after the rice harvesting season, between May and July.

Some are called wau katak, wau kucing, wau ikan, wau puyuh and wau bayan. Javanese Malay] A local theatrical performance. A cultural theatre showcasing Chinese operas, wayang kulit and traditional music is more appropriate and so much more tasteful. Yang di-Pertua Negeri n. Also Yang di-Pertua Negri. About 3, people thronged Padang Merdeka here today to watch a parade which was held to commemorate the 71st official birthday of Yang di-Pertua Negeri Tun Sakaran Dandai and Malaysia Day. Yang di-Pertuan Agong n. The position is sometimes glossed as King in English.

He was installed as the 11th Yang di-Pertuan Agong in The King, who celebrated his 75th birthday in June, performed his duties outstandingly with dignity and honour. Yang di-Pertuan Besar n. The dance infuses elements of zapin, silat and modern and traditional elements that are quick and funny.

Arabic] Illicit sexual intercourse, an offence under the Syariah law of Malaysia. Zina unlawful sexual intercourse : punishable by stoning to death.

About the journal

Because Malay was the lingua franca for trade in maritime Southeast Asia see Reid [ 7] , traders needed to have, either themselves or through an interpreter, a working knowledge of the language. These lines were deleted. Baharom et al. Comments and queries can be emailed to the author at: siewimm. Journal in English Lexicology. Contents - Next document. Siew Imm Tan. Abstract During its evolution in the region that is today Malaysia, English has come into contact with a range of diverse, typologically-distinct languages.

Outline 1. Lexical borrowing in the context of new Englishes. Codifying the lexicon of Malaysian English. Full text PDF k Send by e-mail. Introduction 1 The Malay-speaking communities in and around the Malay Peninsula comprised not only the Malays but These lines were del Appendix Malay borrowings in Malaysian English adat n. Top of page. Browse Index Authors Keywords. Follow us RSS feed. Newsletters OpenEdition Newsletter.

In collaboration with. Semantic fields. Food items. Sweets and beverages. Fruit, vegetables,. Dried, fermented.


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Fish and poultry. Games and sports. Music, song and. Musical instruments. Practices and. Isyak prayer. Friday prayer. Subuh prayer. God willing. Formal and informal. Muslim bumiput e ra. Orang Ulu. Mat Salleh.

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Conferred titles. Datin Seri. Datuk Seri. Puan Sri. Tan Sri. Terms of respect. Name of states and. Neg e ri Sembilan. Cities and towns. Kota Kinabalu. Lembaga Tabung Haji. Orang Asli Affairs. Dewan Negara. Dewan Rakyat. Department of Orang. Islamic Religious. Asli Affairs. Tabung Haji Board. Islamic Affairs. Malaysian Islamic. Datuk Bandar. Menteri Besar. Yang di-Pertuan Besar. Evil spirits. Spiritual healers. Malay kampung. Behavioural terms. Malaysia boleh spirit. Merdeka spirit. Tools and objects. Lexical item.

Meaning s in Malay. Meaning s in ME. Bhd in Negri Sembilan found that. On a third. The court allowed. Court today imposed five strokes of the. Investigating officer. Mohd Salleh and Sait also face another. Meanwhile, offences under Firearms Act. Wan Afrah fixed three days beginning. Zainuri, who was believed to have been. Sait is facing an alternative charge of. Jujili Samrin Gali pleaded guilty. Both also face a second charge of illegal. Q: Your name came out of. This must be understood by the. If the consumer or the. Government does have to teach the. At the same time, the. We need to explain to the.

What we want is a. Azizah Wan Ismail: The Budget is a. PAS president Datuk Fadzil. The second is religious. As the. He always reminded us how. Dennis J. Parker of Middlesex. When undertaking mega or big. Doubtless, this package helps the. And also to promote forward. Sultan, he was always close to the. When he was appointed King, he. Yet the. Tucked in the. That was a key issue at that time. Known as the. I spent a few years of my life in that.

After dinner, we went for a walk. TCRS offers customers a choice of ordinary chicken or. Chef Choong Pak Siong prepares the spaghetti marinara. Your arms and hands. Pumpong Restaurant — a place to try out. Revealing that accidents cost RM6bil a year in. Located 22 km from Benta, the. It offers a tempting array of.